Ethylene interacts with abscisic acid to regulate endosperm rupture during germination: a comparative approach using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana [W][OA]
|Ada Linkies, Kerstin Müller, Karl Morris, Veronika Turecková, Meike Wenk, Cassandra S. C. Cadman, Françoise Corbineau, Miroslav Strnad, James R. Lynn, William E. Finch-Savage, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
|University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Institute for Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' http://www.seedbiology.de (A.L., Ke.M., M.W., G.L.-M.)
Warwick Horticulture Research International (HRI), Warwick University, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, United Kingdom (Ka.M., C.S.C.C., J.R.L., W.E.F.-S.)
Palacky University and Institute of Experimental Botany Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Growth Regulators, CZ-78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic (V.T., M.S.)
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Germination et Dormance des Semences, UR5, Site d'Ivry, F-75005 Paris, France (F.C.)
Received July 23, 2009; Returned for revision October 12, 2009; Accepted November 17, 2009; Published December 18, 2009
Supplemental Figure 1. TAGGIT analysis of functional categories in the Lepidium sativum FR1 transcriptome datasets.
The seed-specific TAGGIT workflow (Carrera et al. 2007; Holdsworth et al., 2008) was applied to Lepidium transcriptome datasets to provide proportional representations of genes in functional categories. (A, B) Comparison of CON array lists:
(A) All transcripts belonging to TAGGIT functional categories (6557 of 22025 transcripts, Supplemental Dataset 3 online) and significantly regulated transcripts belonging to TAGGIT functional categories (487 of 1350 transcripts, Supplemental Dataset 5 online).
(B) Transcripts belonging to TAGGIT functional categories that are regulated in a significantly different way in the radicle and endosperm at 8 h and 18 h (CON-array, Supplemental Dataset 5 online).
(C) Comparison of ABA array lists: All transcripts belonging to TAGGIT functional categories (6036 of 19794 transcripts, Supplemental Dataset 4 online) and significantly regulated transcripts belonging to TAGGIT functional categories (1243 of 3530 transcripts, Supplemental Dataset 6 online).
(D) Key to the colour representation of TAGGIT functional categories (Holdsworth et al., 2008).
(A-C) The TAGGIT analysis suggests that ethylene-related transcripts are important for germination and for counteracting the ABA inhibition. Supplemental Datasets 3-6 provide lists of the transcripts from which the subsets belonging to different TAGGIT functional categories can be extracted by sorting for the TAGGIT column. For example, the numbers (percentages) of transcripts in the functional category 'ethylene' are for 'all transcrips' and 'regulated transcripts' in (A) 144 (2.2%) and 16 (3.3%) for CON and in (B) 131 (2.2%) and 32 (2.6%) for ABA.
Synopsis: Tissue weakening of the endosperm is required to allow radicle protrusion during seed germination. Cross-species work including tissue-specific transcriptome analysis and biomechanical measurement of endosperm weakening provided a new mechanistic model that explains how ethylene promotes seed germination and counteracts the inhibition of endosperm cap weakening by abscisic acid.