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Seed Dormancy

Hyperlink to Seed Dormancy Webpage 1
What is seed dormancy and how is it related to germination? - Definition of seed dormancy
A classification system for seed dormancy: The 'whole-seed view'
Evolution of seed structure and seed dormancy
Embryo dormancy and coat dormancy: The components of physiological dormancy
Induction, maintenance and release of physiological dormancy by plant hormones and environmental signals
Variation of the seed dormancy trait in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana

Seed Dormancy Webpage 2 (this webpage)
Phylogenetic table: Seed dormancy classification with examples

Seed Dormancy - Related topics on other webpages
Seed after-ripening: Dormancy release and promotion of germination
Ecophysiology of dormancy: Response to the environment and dormancy cycling in the seedbank

 




     

Phylogenetic table: Seed dormancy classification with examples

Angiosperm seed dormancy evolution based on the phylogenetic classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (2003). Phylogenetic grouping modified from Judd et al. (2002); Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003); Soltis and Soltis (2003); Stevens (2006).
If not otherwise indicated, dormancy data are from Baskin and Baskin (1998; 2004; personal communication).
These seed dormancy data are also summarized in figures and references of the Tansley review "Seed dormancy and the control of germination" by Finch-Savage WE and Leubner-Metzger G (New Phytologist 171: 2006). A PDF file of this review is available for download from either "The Seed Biology Place" (Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006) or the New Phytologist Trust website at New Phytologist Trust - Tansley Reviews - © Blackwell Science - http://www.blackwell-science.com/

Abbreviations of seed dormancy classes (classification according to Baskin and Baskin (1998; 2004):
ND = Non-dormancy, PD = Physiological dormancy,
MD = Morphological dormancy, MPD = Morphophysiological dormancy,
PY = Physical dormancy, PY+PD = Combinational dormancy.
Note that the numbers represent the numbers of families of the corresponding clade in which at this type of dormancy has been described.
Note that the number of examples for different dormancy classes presented in the table is arbitrary. PD is by far the most widespread dormancy class.
Note further that the numbers for ND are underestimated and are only presented to show that ND and PD are evenly distributed among phylogenetic goups.


Phylogenetic group (major clade, families) Examples including dormancy classification Seed dormancy class (number families)
Angiosperms > Eudicots (Tricolpates) > Core Eudicots > Rosids
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Fagales Fagaceae Fagus sylvatica - beech (PD intermediate) 4 4        
Cucurbitales (1) Cucurbitaceae
(2) Begoniaceae
(1) Cucumis melo - muskmelon (ND/PD)
(2) Begonia spp. - begonia (ND)
1 2        
Rosales (1) Rosaceae

(2) Rhamnaceae
(1) Rosa spp. - rose (PD)
(1) Prunus persica - peach (PD deep)
(2) Ceanothus spp. (PY/PY+PD)
5 6     1 1
Fabales Fabaceae Pisum sativum - garden pea (ND)
Pisum elatius - wild pea (PY)
Glycine max - soybean (PY)
Medicago sativa - lucerne (PY)
Trigonella foenum-graecum - fenugreek (PY)
Melilotus alba - clover (PY)
Trifolium spp. - clover (PY/PY+PD)
2 3     1 1
Zygophyllales       2        
Celastrales     1 2        
Oxalidales     3 3        
Malphighiales (1) Euphorbiaceae
(2) Violaceae
(1) Ricinus communis - castor bean (PD)
(2) Viola spp. - violet (PD)
17 19        
Sapindales (1) Sapindaceae
(incl. Aceraceae)

(2) Ancardiaceae

(1) Acer platanoides - Norway maple (PD deep subtype a) (#1)
(1) Acer pseudoplatanus - sycamore (maple) (PD intermediate) (#1)
(1) Aesculus hippocastanum - horse chestnut (PD) (#2)
(2) Rhus glabra - sumac (PY) (#7)
(2) Rhus aromatica - sumac (PY+PD) (#7)
7 6     2 2
Malvales (1) Malvaceae

(2) Bixaceae
(3) Cistaceae
(1) Malva rotundifolia (PY)
(1) Tilia spp. (PY+PD)
(2) Bixa orellana (PY)
(3) Cistus spp. (PY)
4 1     3 1
Brassicales Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum - garden cress (ND/PD non-deep)
Arabidopsis thaliana - mouse-ear cress (ND/PD non-deep)
Brassica napus - oilseed rape (ND)
Sinapis alba - white mustard (ND)
Sinapis arvensis - wild mustard (PD)
3 6        
Crossosomatales       2        
Myrtales     6 7        
Geraniales Geraniaceae Geranium robertianum - (PY) (#3)
Geranium carolinianum - (PY+PD) (#3)
Pelargonium zonale - geranium (PY) (#3)
1 1     1 1
Vitales Vitaceae Vitis spp. - grape vines (PD or MPD) 1 1   1    
Saxifragales     1 7   1 1  
Other Rosids       1        
Angiosperms > Eudicots (Tricolpates) > Core Eudicots > Asterids
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Lamiales Oleaceae Fraxinus excelsior - ash (MPD deep simple) (#4)
Syringa spp. - lilac (PD non-deep)
7 10   2    
Solanales Solanaceae Cestroideae subfamily:
Nicotiana spp. - tobacco (PD non-deep)
Petunia hybrida - petunia (PD non-deep)
Solanoideae subfamily:
Lycopersicon esculentum - tomato (PD non-deep)
Capsicum annuum - pepper (PD non-deep)
Datura ferox - Datura (PD non-deep)
1 2   1 1  
Gentianales Rubiaceae Coffea arabica - coffee (ND/PD) 3 3   3    
Boraginaceae/others     1 2   1    
Garryales           1    
Asterales (1) Asteraceae

(2) Campanulaceae
(1) Lactuca sativa - lettuce (ND/PD non-deep)
(1) Helianthus annuus - sunflower (PD)
(2) Campanula americana - tall bellflower (MD) (#6)
3 6 1 1    
Dipsacales     1 2   1    
Apiales Apiaceae Apium graveolens - celery (MD)
Apium leptophyllum - (MPD)
Daucus carota - carrot (MD)
1   2 3    
Aquifoliales           1    
Cornales     1 4        
Ericales (1) Ericaceae

(2) Balsaminaceae
(1) Erica spp. (PD)
(1) Leptecophylla tameiameiae (PD deep subtype b) (#5)
(2) Impatiens parviflora - (PD deep)
9 12 1 1    
Other Asterids                
Angiosperms > Eudicots (Tricolpates) > Core Eudicots > Caryophyllids
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Caryophyllales (1) Amaranthaceae
(incl. Chenopodiaceae)
(2) Caryophyllaceae
(3) Droseraceae
(1) Beta vulgaris - sugar beet (ND)
(1) Chenopodium album - lambsquarters (PD)
(2) Dianthus spp. and Silene spp. (PD)
(3) Drosera angelica (PD) (#6)
9 11        
Berberidopsidales                
Santanales       3 3 4    
Angiosperms > Eudicots (Tricolpates) > Core Eudicots > Others
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Gunnerales           1    
Angiosperms > Eudicots (Tricolpates) > Basal Eudicots
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Buxales                
Trochodendrales                
Proteales     2 1     1  
Sabiaceae/others       2   2    
Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Delphinium carolinianum (MD)
Delphinium tricorne (MPD deep complex)
Trollius spp. (MPD intermediate complex)
Anemone coronaria (MD)
Anemone nemorosa - wood anemone, windflower (MPD)
  1 1 4    
Angiosperms > Monocots > Commelinids
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Arecales         1 1    
Commelinales Commelinaceae Commelina spp. (PD) 1 2        
Poales Poaceae Avena fatua - wild oat (PD non-deep)
Triticum aestivum - wheat (PD non-deep)
Hordeum vulgare - barley (PD non-deep)
Zea mays - maize, corn (ND)
4 5        
Zingiberales Cannaceae Canna spp. (PY)   3     1  
Other Commelinids       1        
Angiosperms > Monocots > Monocot clades
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Acorales                
Alismatales     4 9   1    
Asparagales Iridaceae Iris spp. (PD) 3 1 2 3    
Dioscoreales         1      
Liliales Allicaceae Allium rothii - onion relative (MPD)   2 2 2    
Pandanales       1        
Other Monocots                
Angiosperms > Basal Angiosperms > Magnoliids
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Cannellales (Winterales)           1    
Piperales       1 1 1    
Magnoliales Magnoliaceae Magnolia spp. (MPD)     3 3    
Laurales     3 2   1    
Angiosperms > Basal Angiosperms > Others
    Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Chloranthales           1    
Ceratophyllales       1        
Austrobaileyales incl. Schisandraceae     1   1    
Nymphales Nymphaceae Nymphaea alba - water lily (PD)   1        
Amborellaceae                
Unplaced taxa Rafflesiaceae     2 1      
Gymnosperms
  Major clade Example family Example species (dormancy class) ND PD MD MPD PY PY+PD
Cycydales (1) Cycadaceae
(2) Zamiaceae
(1) Cycas rumphii - cycads (MD)
(2) Zamia spp. - cycads (MPD)
    1 2    
Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo biloba - ginkgo (MPD intermediate complex)       1    
Pinales (conifers) (1) Pinaceae
(2) Cupressaceae
(3) Taxaceae
(1) Pinus spp. and Picea spp. (ND or PD)
(2) Chamaecyparis nootkatensis - yellow cedar (PD)
(3) Taxus baccata - European yew (MPD deep simple)
3 4 1 2    
Gnetales Ephedraceae Ephedra spp. (PD)   3        

Angiosperm seed dormancy evolution based on the phylogenetic classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (2003). Phylogenetic grouping modified from Judd et al. (2002); Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003); Soltis and Soltis (2003); Stevens (2006).
If not otherwise indicated, dormancy data are from Baskin and Baskin (1998; 2004; personal communication).
These seed dormancy data are also summarized in figures and references of the Tansley review "Seed dormancy and the control of germination" by Finch-Savage WE and Leubner-Metzger G (New Phytologist 171: 2006). A PDF file of this review is available for download from either "The Seed Biology Place" (Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006) or the New Phytologist Trust website at New Phytologist Trust - Tansley Reviews - © Blackwell Science - http://www.blackwell-science.com/

Selected additional references (#):
#1
Acer spp.: Finch-Savage et al. (1998).
#2 Aesculus hippocastanum: Baskin and Baskin (1998); Daws et al. (2004); Steadman and Pritchard (2004).
#3 Geraniaceae: Meisert (2002).
#4 Fraxinus excelsior: Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger (2006).
#5 Leptecophylla tameiameiae: Baskin et al. (2005).
#6 Dwarf seeds of Drosera angelica and Campanula americana: Baskin and Baskin (2005).
#7 Rhus spp. (Ancardiaceae dormancy evolution): (Baskin et al. 2000).


Abbreviations of seed dormancy classes (classification according to Baskin and Baskin (1998; 2004):
ND = Non-dormancy, PD = Physiological dormancy,
MD = Morphological dormancy, MPD = Morphophysiological dormancy,
PY = Physical dormancy, PY+PD = Combinational dormancy.
Note that the numbers represent the numbers of families of the corresponding clade in which at this type of dormancy has been described.
Note that the number of examples for different dormancy classes presented in the table is arbitrary. PD is by far the most widespread dormancy class.
Note further that the numbers for ND are underestimated and are only presented to show that ND and PD are evenly distributed among phylogenetic goups.




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